ORGANIC FARMING: AN INSIGHT by BHAWANA YADAV

As humans progressed, he kept on destroying nature. Due to the dependency on technology and chemicals in every field, they kept distancing themselves from nature. The same thing happened in the field of agriculture too. The prologue of chemical fertilizers got a hysterical response from users at the sight of what they could accomplish. As the soil was healthy, yields skyrocketed, and the harms were barely noticeable. That brought a revolution in the agriculture sector. But gradually, humans started to realize the damage caused by this, and after that, in the 1900s, Sir Albert Howard, F.H. King, and Rudolf Steiner developed the concept of organic farming. Harmful effects of fertilizers on the environment and health coupled together to create a boom in organic farming. Now, the question arises, what is organic farming?



Organic farming is an agricultural system that primarily focuses on organic origin fertilizers, i.e. fertilizers derived predominantly from animal and plant wastes to produce crops, livestock, and poultry. It came into existence to reduce the environmental harm caused by conventional farming. Organic farming is not limited to the plants only but, it also involves animal rearing with the natural approach. It comprehends no use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides. Organic farming extensively relies on soil nourishing using compost, manures, biological pest control, minerals, and rock additives. Other techniques are crop rotation, intercropping, minimal tillage to increase the soil quality. Apart from chemical fertilizers and pesticides, it also excludes antibiotics and genetically modified organisms or products.


Although organic farming is benignant for the environment and our health, its price is generally higher than conventionally grown food. According to some studies, the yield for organic cultivation is also low as compared to conventional farming.


Organic farmers must be certified for their products, and the products must be labelled as "organic" There are also some specific measures for the processing of crops, live stocks, and wild-crafted products. According to the USDA, the National Organic Standard, the raw manure must not be applied later than 90 days or 120 days before the harvest due to the potential of harbouring human pathogens.


Methods of Organic Farming:


Crop Rotation

As the name suggests, it means rotation of crops on the same field season by season.

Benefits of crop rotation-

● It protects soil from nutrient depletion, thus eliminating the use of chemical fertilizers.

● It eradicates pest and weed infestation.

● It prevents soil erosion with different root systems.


Intercropping

● It allows using the land more effectively.

● It prevents soil erosion.

● It Contributes to increase soil fertility.

● It employs more efficient use of natural resources like water.

● It saves cost.


Green Manure

The mixing of green plants with soil is known as green manure.

Benefits of Green Manure: